Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde supersonic transport (SST), along with the Tupolev Tu-144, was one of only two models of supersonic passenger airliners to have seen commercial service. First flown in 1969, her service spanned from 1976 to 2003. The 1973 oil crisis, along with political opposition and environmental controversy led British Airways (BA) and Air France to be the sole buyers. She flew most regularly from London Heathrow and Paris Charles de Gaulle to New York JFK. A crash north of Paris in 2000, caused by tyre debris piercing a fuel tank, grounded the fleet whilst modifications were carried out. This, along with her age, the unwillingness of Airbus to continue maintenance, and the downturn in US demand for flights in the light of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, prompted BA and Air France to jointly decide to withdraw her from service in 2003. In retirement, Concorde remains an icon of aircraft history.